From a recent news letter I received about instructional design:
We have just started training a guide dog (tax deductable “security”…). It is very interesting process. Before we got the dog, we had to sign an agreement relating to its training and care. We have been supplied with a comprehensive manual and receive a weekly visit from the master trainer to ensure we are doing a good job (compare this with having a baby; planning, manual, support – all optional.) The training process is primarily through positive reinforcement and consistency - no punishment.
If the dog fails to get accepted as guide dog, the failed trainer has to pay and gets the dog back. Imagine how leadership training would improve if we had the threat of getting the failed leader as our own boss!